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Speed skating is a kind of sport in which the participants of the competition must overcome the distance in a vicious circle at the ice stadium as fast as possible. According to archaeologists, speed skating is one of the most ancient - the skates discovered during excavations are 3200 years old and most likely belonged to the Cimmerians (one of the nomadic tribes that lived in the northern Black Sea region).
Ice skating was often reflected in painting - one of these paintings dates back to 1380. Skating is also mentioned in some written sources, the first of them, placed in Gemakh's "English-Dutch Dictionary", dated 1648.
The world's first speed skating club was organized in Great Britain in 1742, and official competitions in this sport were held in January 1763 in the same country. Also in England, in 1772, the first book of speed skating rules was published, including practical recommendations for skaters and figure skaters. In Russia, however, a book of this kind, called "Winter Fun and the Art of Skating with Figures" was published in 1839.
Speed skating began to develop in the 50-60s of the XIX century: in 1830 a speed skating club was organized in Glasgow, in 1849 - in Philadelphia, in 1863 - in New York and in Norway. Over the next 5 years, speed skating clubs appeared in many countries: in 1864 - in Russia, in 1865 - in France, in 1867 - in Austria, in 1868 - in Germany, in 1869 - in Hungary.
December 8, 1879 in England for the first time in the world was organized a national championship in speed skating. In the middle of the 19th century, first in London, and then in other cities of Europe and America, water rinks appeared - before that, athletes used only natural reservoirs for competitions in speed skating and figure skating.
The first world championship in this sport took place in 1889 in Amsterdam (Netherlands). These competitions were declared professional by the International Skating Union.
In 1892, the International Skating Union - ISU was created, now it includes more than 60 national federations of different countries of the world. It was at the ISU Congress in Copenhagen (1895) that the Uniform Rules for Speed Skating were approved.
1893 - the first official world speed skating championship for men took place in Amsterdam. In the same year, the European Championship in this sport was held. Women also actively mastered speed skating - since 1911 they participated in single races of 500 meters and in figure skating competitions.
In 1936, the world championship in speed skating for women was held, and the fair sex began to participate in the European championships only in 1970. Since 1972, the world championships in sprint all-around (500 and 1000 m) have been held.
Speed skating (distances - 500, 1500, 5000, 10000 m and all-around) for men was included in the program of the first Winter Olympic Games (Chamonix (France)) in 1924, and competitions of this kind among women athletes began to be held in 1960 of the year. It should be mentioned that at the II Olympiad (1928, St. Moritz (Switzerland)), there were no all-around competitions and competitions at a distance of 10,000 m.
Nowadays, skaters compete in speed at short - 500, 1,000 (for men since 1976), and 1,500 m, and long - 3,000, 5,000 (for women since 1988), and 10,000 m distances. Speed skating competitions are held on ice tracks, the length of which is 400 meters, width - 10 meters (as well as an additional 2 meters for the safety of the competitors and the convenience of snow removal), the radius of turns is 25 and 30 meters. In addition, some stadiums have internal warm-up tracks (length - 333 meters, width - 5 meters). Since the skater runs half of the circle on the inside track and the other half on the outside, the length of the track is half the sum of the lengths of the outside and inside tracks. The distance covered by the athlete during the transition from one track to another is also taken into account. To delimit the paths, a line (width - 5 cm) is used, painted on the ice with bright paint. On top of it, a roller of snow (15 cm wide) is superimposed, the outer edge of which coincides with the outer edge of the marking line. In the event that the size of the ice field is not sufficient to create a standard track, the organizers of the competition can reduce the turning radius or mark a smaller track.
From each national team, 3 athletes take part in all types of competitions in speed skating (until 1972, at distances of 500 and 1500 m for men - 4 athletes). All participants in the competition are divided into pairs and walk the distance, moving counterclockwise along the ice path. The skater with the fastest time wins.
Types of speed skating:
• actual speed skating - a speed skating competition held on a long running track (400 m);
• figure skating - athletes (most often to music) move across the ice field, performing additional elements of various kinds (jumps, spins, supports, etc.);
• short track - skating competitions held on a short track (111.12 m).
In the beginning, skates were made of wood. This is not entirely true. According to archaeologists, the first skates were based on the thigh bones of animals. In the period from XIII to XVIII centuries. the base of the skates was wooden with attached runners made of iron or bronze, and a little later - of steel.
Speed skating and figure skating are different types of speed skating. Indeed, at the end of the 19th century, a process of "specialization" began in the ranks of skaters - athletes appeared who preferred high-speed ice skating or figure skating. However, a complete separation took place only at the beginning of the 20th century, before that the same athletes participated in all competitions, be it figure skating or overcoming distances at speed.
In speed skating, there has never been an absolute championship in all-around. The procedure for determining world and Olympic champions in this sport has changed several times. In the period from 1909 to 1915, in order to obtain the aforementioned title, it was really enough for a skater to win 1-2 distances and get the least number of points in the all-around. In 1926-27, the winner was the athlete who gained the highest percentage of the 4 distances and demonstrated at least one record result. But in the period from 1915 to 1925, in particular in 1924 at the I Winter Olympics (Chamonix (France)), to determine the champion, the results demonstrated by the athletes at all 4 all-around distances were summed up.
Records in speed skating began to be registered in 1893. In 1893, for the first time, the titles of European champion (Swede R. Ericsson) and world champion (Dutchman Eden) were officially awarded, but records in this sport began to be registered as early as 1890, and the achievements that had taken place earlier were taken into account. World records set by female athletes have been recorded since 1929, although the first world speed skating championship for women took place only in 1936. Records for small all-round events have been registered since 1956.
The earlier a person starts speed skating, the better. No, this statement is true for figure skating. But speed skating is best to start at 10-11 years old.
It is best to go in for speed skating on well-frozen ice. This is not true. The ice should not be too hard, since it is in this case that the skate can adhere to the ice, which decreases as the aforementioned substance hardens further.
Ice of the same temperature and thickness is suitable for all types of speed skating. Misconception. The level of adhesion to the skates, strength, the possibility of chips, etc. depends on the ice temperature. Therefore, different sports require ice of different temperatures: in figure skating - from -3 to -5 ° C (good grip with the skate is ensured), in short track - up to -6 ° C, for hockey matches you need colder ice - from -6 to -8 ° С, and on speed skating tracks the ice temperature is from -7 ° С (for sprinters) to -10 ° С (for stayer races). The thickness of the ice cover for different types of speed skating also varies somewhat. For a sprint and long-distance race, a 25 mm layer of ice is sufficient, but on short track areas the ice is somewhat thicker - about 40 mm.
Ice on artificial skating rinks is always even and smooth. Unfortunately, this is not the case, especially if the rollers are homemade. And for productive speed skating, the most even and smooth surface is suitable, which takes place only on specially prepared ice stadiums.
It takes 2-3 days to fill an ice rink in a sports complex, and ice can be melted in a day and a half. It is really possible to melt the ice field and arrange, say, tennis courts or additional stands rather quickly. And the filling itself, according to international standards, takes no more than 3 days. However, preparatory work on the ice field can take much longer. After all, before pouring ice, which in itself is a rather complex technological process, the concrete slab located at the base of the rink is carefully examined, repaired, and polished. This process can take several weeks.
One of the athletes overcomes the entire distance along the outer track, the other along the inner track. In order to equalize the chances of winning, in a special zone, skaters exchange lanes. As a result, each of them runs half the circle along the outer track, the other half along the inner track.
All participants in cyclic competitions (cyclists, skaters, etc.) corner the same way - away from the inner edge of the track. No, only athletes who use any vehicles (cyclists, motorcycle racers, etc.) to stay at the maximum distance from the inner edge of the track on bends try to keep to the distance. Since in this case they will be almost perpendicular to the surface of the track, the friction force will be minimal, the angle of inclination of the track surface to the horizon will be the smallest. It is this state of affairs that makes it possible for athletes to take a turn as fast as possible. But skaters, on the contrary, try to stay closer to the inner edge of the track, since it is in this case that the resultant of three forces (friction, gravity, support reaction) cause centripetal acceleration, which means that the turnaround time is reduced to a minimum.
If the athlete falls before the finish, he cannot be declared the winner. According to the main rule of speed skating, if an athlete's skate crosses the finish line, the result will be credited to him, even if he falls.
Speed skating techniques are mastered only during training on ice. Of course, these kinds of activities are extremely important. However, you shouldn't underestimate the importance of home workouts. Experts recommend that beginners first put on skates with sheathed blades and walk on the floor at home, do squats (both on two and on one leg). To this should be added walking on heels, toes, outside and inside of the foot, lunges, cross and goose strides in combination with hand swings - exercises that develop coordination and are similar in nature to ice skating. Thus, a person will gain stability and confidence, which novice skaters lack so much.
The main thing is to learn how to run on ice, moving your legs as quickly as possible. Professional athletes do not run, but slide, making steps of the same length and using the acceleration of each step to the end. At the same time, they try to move smoothly and evenly, making strong jerks without jerking - this is the only way to develop a really high speed. An increase in the frequency of steps is observed only in long-distance running (5000 and 1000 meters), when, as a result of increasing fatigue, the power of the push decreases, and the skater has to change running tactics. However, it should be noted that high-class athletes cover the entire distance without slowing down, without changing the frequency of steps.
When running long distances, the skater feels best at the beginning, fatigue builds up towards the end of the race. Not necessary. Experts say that in 10 or 20 minutes required to cover the distance, the athlete's well-being can both deteriorate and remain stable, and sometimes even improve compared to that which took place at the very beginning of the race.
Skate models don't change very often, the latest invention is klapp skates. Indeed, when purchasing skates, you can not be afraid that in a couple of years you will have to change them to a new model. However, the klapa skates that appeared in the late 90s (or flapper skates, which got their name due to the fact that the spring that returns the skate to its place, makes a characteristic sound when the skater moves), characterized in that the blade is attached to a large to the toe rather than the sole of the boot is by no means the latest invention. In addition, there are models of skates with blades, the thickness of which is about 1.1 mm at the front and back, and 0.9 mm in the middle, which allow to increase the results demonstrated by athletes during the competition. And in Russia, the so-called adaptive skates or "adacons" (inventor - Lev Nikolaevich Aksenov) are being developed, equipped with an adjusting unit that allows you to set the position of the blade in accordance with the anatomical features of a particular person. According to the inventor, such skates will significantly increase the speed of athletes, as well as prevent various problems with the musculoskeletal system caused by the fact that all modern skates have a standard blade position (on a line running from the middle of the heel to the second toe), not always coinciding with the line of support of the foot.
The more expensive skating boots are, the easier it will be to master the wisdom of this sport. Yes, expensive boots have some undeniable advantages. For example, if a boot is made of thermoformed plastic, it can be self-adjusted exactly to the foot. It is enough to heat the shoes to a temperature of 60-70º С (in a sauna or steam bath), put them on your feet, lace them up and shape them with your hands to match your foot, just pressing the boot tightly to your foot. Once it has cooled down, you will have the perfect shoes for you. The high sides of the skating boots that cover the ankle give stability on ice. However, you should not think that without certain skills you will be able to easily coordinate your movements on the ice only thanks to branded shoes. To achieve certain results, it will take a lot of time to devote to training aimed at developing the muscles of the foot and lower leg, improving coordination of movements, a sense of balance, etc.
The tighter the laces are, the better. This principle is most often followed by beginners, who are struggling to tighten the laces at the bottom of the boot. Professionals say that in high-speed running, the leg needs some freedom.If the laces are tied so that it is impossible to move your toes, your legs will quickly get tired, and on an open skating rink they will also freeze. It is recommended to lace the boots with a cross overlap, while in the lower part the laces should not be tightened very tightly, the middle part of the shoe should be laced tighter, and the upper one should be most loosely. Only in this case will you be provided with comfort during a long strenuous workout.
At first, used skates are quite suitable for training. Indeed, skates can be rented and it is not very expensive - about $ 4-5 for a couple of hours. However, it should be remembered that such skates are rarely of high quality, therefore it is better to buy your own - their cost varies from $ 40 to $ 120.