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Rally (English rally - "rally", "gathering") is one of the types of motor racing competitions, held both on open and closed tracks. Most often, routes are laid on public roads and provide for the mandatory passage of checkpoints and exact adherence to the specified traffic schedule.
The rally car crew can consist of one person (if the competition is one-day) and two or three (if a multi-day competition is expected). The very same rally car is most often either a modified or specially created for racing on rough terrain a vehicle that has a margin of safety, maneuverability, and is also capable, if necessary, to develop a fairly high speed.
The term "rally" was first used in January 1907 at the Monte Carlo Rally, but it was only widely used in the 1920s, when the so-called Alpine rallies were held in many European countries (Alpenfahrt in Austria, Coppa delle Alpi in Italy , Coupe Internationale des Alpes - co-organized by Italy, Germany and Austria). The intense competition for the Glacier Cup in the individual and the Alpine Cup in the team event attracted a lot of public attention.
Since 1931, Belgium has hosted the Liege - Rome - Liege rally, Ireland - the Ulster Motor Rally, and since 1932, France has hosted a competition called the Rallye des Alpes Françaises (renamed after the war into Rallye International des Alpes (or Coupe des Alpes)) , and in England - RAC Rally. The last pre-war major rally racing in Europe was the 1939 Belgian Rally, and outside Europe the 1940 Gran Premio del Norte (Lima - Buenos Aires - Lima). This was followed by a long break - the war began, which destroyed the plans and hopes of the athletes.
In the post-war years, it took a lot of time and effort to revive the rally. Only in the 50s of the last century, competitions in this sport began to be held again, and many new ones were added to the already known ones: in 1947 - the Lisbon rally (Portugal), in 1949 - the Tulip Rally (Netherlands,), in 1951 - rally Mclassnight Sun now - rally Sweden / (Sweden) and rally 1000 lake - rally Finland / (Finland), in 1956 - rally Acropolis (Greece).
Also, new rally tracks were actively mastered in the vastness of Asia, Africa and America. In 1947, the Gran Premio del Norte race was held again, in 1948 - the Gran Premio de la América del Sur rally (Buenos Aires - Caracas). In 1950, the Carrera Panamericana rally appeared (the track, which was 3,075 km long, ran from the Guatemalan border to the US border) and Méditerranée-le Cap (16,000 km from the Mediterranean to South Africa). Since 1953, the RedeX Round has been held in Australia, and in East Africa - the Coronation Safari (now the Safari Rally), as well as the Morocco Rally and the Ivory Coast Rally. Since the 1960s, North America has hosted the Shell 4000 Rally, the only FIA approved rally in this part of the world. Nowadays, rally is an international sport, however, in addition to sports, there are also amateur competitions, in which everyone can participate.
- compact competitions (short distance), which include rally sprints, hill climbs, etc. - competitions at a distance, the length of which is usually from 1 to 10 km, passing on all kinds of road surfaces on closed sections of the track;
- educational competitions, UTR (educational and training rally), UMR (educational mini-rally) - competitions that are designed to teach athletes the rules for working with documentation (drawing up applications for participation, studying the rules for working with route documents and referee teams), the ability to read the legend and compare your own actions with the parameters specified in it, etc.;
- rally of the 3rd category (Vacation rally, Nadezhda rally, etc.) - the main goal of this competition, which most often takes place on public roads, is the correct choice of speed and rhythm of movement, which is closest to that indicated in the legend. In such rallies, the skill of the navigator is especially significant;
- club rally - a competition where everyone can participate in the "Standard" class on cars with minimal design changes, equipped with tires designed for ordinary roads. Victory in this type of competition gives the participant a chance to get to professional and international competitions in this sport, for participation in which a car specially equipped with a roll cage and sports tires will be required;
- rally-raid - the length of the route passing through the territory of one or several states - from 1200 km to 6500 km, the duration of the competition - no more than 10 days;
- amateur rally - takes place most often on roads that are open to public use. Preliminary acquaintance with the route is prohibited - the crew moves along the route, guided only by the legend.
The rally can be held at any time of the year, therefore, riders should be prepared for a wide variety of weather conditions and road conditions, both asphalt and unpaved. In such conditions, it is sometimes very difficult to cope with the control, because the off-track for rally drivers happens much more often than for drivers participating in circuit races. Since the track is replete with unexpected turns, descents and ascents, and when passing various sections one should adhere to one or another speed, the driver or navigator is given a legend before the ride - a detailed description of the route indicating turns, jumps, speed limits, etc. In some cases, for example, at the World Rally Championship, the driver has the right to familiarize himself with the route in advance. In the process of reconnaissance, the pilot informs the navigator about the peculiarities of the route, and he enters the information into the legend - this allows the driver to better prepare for the arrival and more quickly and safely pass the DOPs (additional intermediate arrivals). However, due to a lack of time and money, in many modern rallies, preliminary acquaintance with the track is prohibited - the navigators receive a legend, drawn up in accordance with a certain format, immediately before the start, and the route itself is most often not announced until the start of the races.
Usually the competition consists of several special stages (DOPs), the length of which is about 50 kilometers, and "ferry stages" - longer sections of the track between DOPs. Some races provide for the passage of super special stages, very short - they usually fit within the football field and most often go through stadiums (for the convenience of riders and spectators). These stages, during the passage of which cars move along parallel paths and spectators have the opportunity to watch exciting scenes of the struggle of racers, are gaining more and more popularity. The main task of the rider is to show the smallest total time at the super special stages and SS, and to pass the "ferry stages" at a given speed for the time indicated in the legend (both for being late and for being ahead of the schedule are awarded penalty points).
There were no rallies until 1907. Misconception. Although the term rally was indeed first used in 1907, this kind of competition has been held in the past. For the first time this type of competition was held in 1894 (the race between Paris and Rouen). The competition, covered and patronized by the Le Petit Journal newspaper, immensely interested both the public and the leading manufacturers and gave impetus to a whole period of road races that took place between cities in different European countries. Moreover, the observers, on the basis of whose reports the prizes were awarded, did not contemplate the race from the side, but were in each of the cars. The most ambitious of such competitions was the 1895 rally (Paris - Bordeaux - Paris, 1178 km). The average speed of the car in this race was 24 km / h, but already in 1903 the cars were moving at a speed of 105 km / h. This state of affairs posed a considerable danger to traffic participants and spectators and was the reason for the ban on the rally. Therefore, nowadays races in Europe are held on specially equipped closed race tracks. For a long time, Italy was an exception to this rule, in which a test drive was held back in 1895, and the first real rally in 1897. Racing on public roads was held in this country until 1957, but after the accident at the Mille Miglia rally was banned. However, despite the bans, some off-circuit races in Europe were sometimes held. For example, in April-May 1900, the Thousand Miles Race was organized by the Automobile Club of Great Britain, and outside the special stages, the speed of cars should not exceed 19 km / h. And in 1905, the Herkomer Trophy Trial competition was held in Germany. In the same year, the Coupe de l'Auto rally took place in France.
At first, the rally routes were laid only within Europe. This is not true. Back in 1907, a race was held on the route Beijing - Paris, and in 1908 - New York - Paris (moreover, the route passed through Siberia and Japan).
Athletes overcome the entire route of the rally with maximum speed. Athletes develop their maximum speed only on specially equipped sections of the track, most often called DOP (additional intermediate races) and regulated by special rules. The most popular are the following DOPs:
- SS - high-speed sections that should be passed, spending a minimum of time, since every second of being in this section is counted as a penalty;
- taxiway - movement from the starting point with a specified (or regulated by road signs) speed to the finish, the location of which is not reported;
- RG - a section between two pre-specified points, on which one should move at a speed not less than that indicated by the organizers of the races. It is allowed to be ahead of rivals;
- slalom - movement along a complex track marked with stands, replete with sharp turns, zigzags, etc .;
- sprint - a race from a standstill, the goal of which is the fastest possible overcoming of a short section of the track;
- climbing the hill.
Outside the special stages, the movement of athletes is regulated by generally accepted traffic rules and complies with strictly defined time standards.
Special cars have always been used for racing. No, it wasn't always like this. Until 1940, rallies were carried out on standard cars or on cars modified in terms of control, suspension and braking. Of course, there were exceptions in those days, for example, a Ford V8 car specially created for the Monte Carlo Rally by a racer from Romania. Only in the 60s of the last century, when public interest in this sport increased enormously, car manufacturers began to create special models for rallies.
The rally participant, in case of victory, receives a large amount of money and compensation for expenses. This is true, but this state of affairs has been taking place only since the 60s of the last century. Before that, the vast majority of pilots were just amateurs, most often paying for participation in races out of their own pockets. The prize pool was usually just enough to cover the costs. Super-profits were out of the question.
You can only take part in the rally by car. Indeed, most often rally pilots compete in cars, but in some cases it is permissible to use other vehicles. In the Dakar Rally, the winners of the rally-raids are determined in the competition of participants in cars, as well as in the offsets of competitions among motorcycle, ATV and truck drivers.
The rallies take place exclusively on land vehicles. This is not so - there are also sailing rallies in which participants on ships equipped with a sail cover a distance along a predetermined route to the finish line.
The rally is most often attended by professional athletes. It all depends on what kind of rally we are talking about. In some competitions (for example, in the world rally championships) only professional athletes in specially equipped vehicles can actually participate. And, for example, everyone can participate in amateur or club rallies. In some races (for example, the Dakar rally), both professional athletes (factory teams) and amateurs take part, and it is they who make up the overwhelming majority of participants - about 80%.
Women do not participate in the rally. Completely erroneous opinion. The fair sex not only participate in this type of competition, but also win. For the first time, a woman - Michelle Mouton (Audi team) - won one of the stages of the World Rally Championship in 1981. And since 1990, in the Moroccan desert, under the auspices of His Majesty King Mohammed VI of Morocco, the "Rallye Aicha des Gazelles" ("Gazelle Rally") competitions, sometimes called "Women's Dakar", have been held. Only women of different nationalities aged 18 to 65 compete in this rally on ATVs, SUVs, cars and trucks. In 2009, the Gazelle Rally was attended by 238 racers from 119 teams. In addition, women's rallies, although on a much smaller scale, have been held since 2006 in many countries of the post-Soviet space.
Rally and auto rally are the same thing. A motor rally is a championship that takes a slightly longer route than the rally routes, which, moreover, more often than not, is only a part of the world championship.
Formula 1 is a rally. No, these are different classes of races. Formula 1 belongs to the class of circuit car racing, this type of competition is held on specially created cars - race cars - whose main task is to develop the maximum possible speed. However, such vehicles are completely unsuitable for movement outside the stadium tracks, for example, on highways or dirt roads.
Rally is a type of competition that involves the movement of a car on open tracks, and sometimes off-road. Therefore, in this class of auto racing, vehicles with other technical characteristics are used, in many respects different from the properties of Formula 1 cars.
It is best to watch the racers fight while being close to the track. Of course, being close to the track, you can see many interesting moments and details of the race. However, it should be remembered that this sport is quite dangerous not only for racers, but also for spectators - after all, sometimes the driver, especially at high speed, is capable of making a mistake or losing control, as a result of which the car can go off the track. Therefore, it is best to observe the races from a high point - there are fewer details, but it is safe.
In rallying, the most important thing is speed. This statement is true only in relation to some SS, the passage of which really implies movement with maximum speed. On the rest of the track, cars must move, observing a certain speed limit. This rule of oldtimer rally - racing on old cars - is especially relevant. The main thing in this type of rally is not speed, but precise (sometimes up to tenths or even hundredths of a second) adherence to a certain schedule while moving along the route, which the rider will learn about half an hour before the start. Participants are required to comply with the rules of the road and the speed limit established for all types of transport on a particular section of the route. If the car is running late or ahead of schedule, the crew receives penalty minutes at the checkpoints. In addition, the judges' points located in the most unexpected places on the route carry out "sudden time control".
Rally "Paris - Dakar" - a sporting event, positively perceived by the public around the world. This is not entirely true.Organized in 1978 on the initiative of the Frenchman Thierry Sabinon, this rally was initially positioned not as a sports competition, but as an opportunity to get thrills and experience unforgettable adventures. Every year there are more and more people wishing to participate in the race, but the public opinion about this rally-marathon is by no means unambiguous - many believe that the funds allocated for this competition could well be spent on other, more important purposes. In France alone, about 200 public organizations that made up the Pa'Dak (from the French pas d'accord - "we do not agree") spoke out against the Dakar rally.
Rally "Paris - Dakar" always starts in the capital of France and finishes in the capital of Senegal. The rally started in Paris only from 1979 to 1994, as well as in 1998 and 2001. And since 1995, the starting point for the start of the race was the following cities: Granada (1995-96, 1999), Dakar (1997, 2000), Arras (2002), Marseille (2003) , Clermont-Ferrand (2004), Barcelona (2005), Lisbon (2006-2007), Buenos Aires (2009). In accordance with the change in the route, the place of the finish also changed at times. Most often it really was Dakar, however, for example, in 1992 Cape Town became the final point of the rally route, in 2000 - Cairo, in 2003 - Sharm el Sheikh, in 2009 - Buenos Aires.
The Constructors' Cup at the Dakar Rally most often goes to the Japanese. This is true when it comes to rally cars, motorcycles and ATVs. However, for the best truck, designers from Russia received the largest number of awards.