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Curling (English curling, from curl - translated from English "to twist", "twist", from Scottish - "to play curling") is a game that is played on an elongated rectangular ice field 44.5 x 4.75 m, where marked with a 31 m long track and a scoring circle ("house") with a diameter of about 3.66 m (12 feet or 365.76 cm).
The goal of each team, consisting of 4 people, is to launch a bat (the so-called "stone" - a granite disc with a metal handle, weighing 19.96 kg, dimensions - 30x40 cm) into the "house" and at the same time pushing it out of the target the opponent's bat.
Scotland is considered the birthplace of this sport - it was there, at the bottom of the dried-up Lake Dunban, that a curling stone was found with the date of manufacture - 1511 - carved on its surface. Chronicle mentions of curling, preserved in Paisley Abbey (Scotland), date back to 1541.
This game was depicted (more precisely, a curling-like ice stock, which was the favorite pastime of Scottish peasants) and on paintings (the most striking example is the paintings of Pieter Bruegel, created in 1565).
The first curling club was founded in 1716 in Kilsith (Scotland), where the first man-made curling field was created - a pond, fenced with a dam, and after freezing, it turns into a platform of 100x250 m. And this winter fun began to be reckoned with as a sport. 1838 - It was then that the Royal Curling Club in Caledonia was established.
The International Curling Federation (ICF or FIK) was founded in 1950, and today it unites 36 national federations. It is on the initiative of this organization that European championships have been held since 1951, and since 1959 - world championships for male athletes (the first competition of this kind for women was held in 1979) in this sport.
For a long time, stones of a certain shape, size and weight have been used for curling. Yes, the standardization of stones for curling began quite a long time ago - back in 1775, round stones of a certain size and weight were made with special metal handles. Before that, ordinary stones that fell from the mountains were used for the game. Moreover, even in this case, they tried to select stones of approximately the same size and weight. And in the annals of Darwell (Scotland) there is a mention of the fact that sometimes stone weights were used as curling shells, usually used for oppression in weaving machines. In curling competitions, these weights were fitted with a removable handle, which was carefully polished (most often the wives of the players were engaged in this work, thereby trying to maintain the authority of their spouse).
Winning curling strategies have been developed over the centuries, and are governed by the rules of this game. No, the formation of any strategy was hampered by the irregularities of the ice platform and the imperfect shape of the shells, which sometimes served as ordinary stones. The victory was more often promoted not so much by sportsmanship as by the luck of the players of one or another team. And the curling rules were approved only in the first half of the 19th century, and have changed little over the years.
Curling appeared at the Olympic Games at the end of the last century. Indeed, it was at the 1998 Olympics (Nagano, Japan) that 2 sets of medals (for men and women) were played in this sport. However, demonstration curling competitions at the Olympic Games were held earlier: at the Winter Olympic Games in Chamonix (1924), Lake Placid (1932), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1936), Innsbruck (1964), Albertville (1992). But only in 1994, at a meeting of the IOC, it was decided to include curling in the number of Olympic sports.
The first Olympic medals were awarded to the curlers in 1998. It really is. However, according to the decision of the IOC, adopted in February 2006, the performance of the Curlers at the 1924 Olympics was recognized as a full-fledged Olympic event. In accordance with this decision, 74 years after the competition, the awards were distributed: the teams of Ireland and Great Britain received gold medals, silver went to athletes from Sweden, bronze - to a team from France.
Curling appeared in Russia only at the end of the last century. Misconception. The first curling clubs appeared at the end of the 19th century in Moscow (1893) and St. Petersburg (1896) and existed until the outbreak of the First World War. In the 20s of the last century, attempts were made to revive this sport in Russia, but none of them was crowned with success. And only in 1991 curling was revived on the basis of the State Academy of Physical Culture named after P.F. Lesgaft (St. Petersburg).
There are several types of curling. Yes, besides the Scottish curling, there are several other varieties of curling, for example, the German ice-stock (Ice-stock or Eisstockschießen), also called Bavarian curling. For the first time this fun is mentioned in the Scandinavian chronicles dating back to the 13th century. From Scandinavia, ice-runoff penetrated into Holland and further into the Alpine countries, where it became an extremely popular pastime. The player's task in this sport is to launch a bat (made of wood, studded with iron hoops and having a vertical handle, not horizontal, as in Scottish curling) so that it stops as close as possible to the riveting ("Daube") - 12 cm puck set at a certain distance from the starting line. Ice stock was twice included in the Olympics program as a demonstration species (in 1936 and 1964). The first European championship in Bavarian curling took place in 1951; since 1983, the European and world championships in this sport have been held regularly.
The word "curling" comes from the English curl - "to twist". Researchers believe that the word curling, which appeared in the 17th century thanks to the poem by Henry Adamson (Scotland), does not come from curl, which characterizes the curl marks left by a stone on the ice, but from the Scottish curr - "low growl" or "roar". This game got this name because the stone in the process of sliding on the ice emitted a characteristic low rumble. In favor of the correctness of this theory is the fact that today, in some parts of Scotland, curling is called "the game of roaring stones."
Because it sometimes takes some clever stone combinations to win, curling is sometimes referred to as "ice chess". This sport received this name not only for the above reason and because of the measured rhythm of the game, but also because athletes show honesty, friendliness and nobility to each other. Real curlers will neither distract, nor intimidate, nor try to humiliate their rivals, they will not cheat, seeking victory - this is simply not accepted. A violation of the rules, if any, will most likely be reported by the violator himself, and even more so athletes will not intentionally violate the rules.
Curlers are mostly young people. Not necessary. In this sport, not only dexterity and a good eye are important, but also tactical skills that come only in the process of long training and repeated performances. In addition, neither reaction speed, nor great physical strength, endurance and perfect health play a decisive role in curling. Therefore, in this sports discipline, there are many athletes at the age of 50 who achieve great success in various competitions.
You need special boots for curling. Indeed, special shoes are created for curlers that allow them to easily slide on the ice and quickly stop at the desired point. Therefore, the sole of one shoe is covered with a slip material, while the other is covered with an anti-slip material.
The width of the lines is not included in the dimensions of the curling board. This is not entirely true. The area of the playing court is limited by the side line (side lines), the width of which is not included in the size of the court, and the bask line (back lines), the width of which is included in the size of the playing field (moreover, the "house" circle line and the back line of the court overlap each other on touch point).
The main thing when throwing is to correctly calculate the effort. Yes, because only in this case will the stone achieve its goal: it will either stop in the center of the "house" or push the opponent's stone out of the "house". However, when throwing the stone, the player who launches the stone must release the handle in time, since if he does this too late (the handle crosses the line of the throw), the attempt is not valid and the bat is removed from the game. Rollover of a stone, stopping before crossing the hog line, and crossing the back line of the court or contact of the bat with the rim also results in the cancellation of the rally.
The right to the first throw in curling is the key to winning the end. In this game, the last throw, to which the losing team gets the right, is much more significant. It should also be noted that in the case when the end ends in a goalless draw, the right of the last throw does not pass to the opposing team, therefore, in some cases, the players deliberately send the last ball out-of-bounds, hoping to catch up in the next end.
The score 0: 0 will be announced in the event that none of the stones hit the "house". Yes it is. The same score will be announced if the two stones of the opposing teams that are closest to the center of the house are at an equal distance from it.
The number of points that one of the teams will receive in the end is calculated by the judge. Most often, the number of points is determined by the skips (i.e. captains) of the teams after a visual examination of the location of the stones on the playing court, formed after the end of the end. If disagreements arise, a judge enters the case, using a special mobile measuring device to measure the position of stones in the house. Measurements using special reference devices are also made in the case when the skips disagreed as to whether the stone is in the "house" or not. Measurements of this kind are made by the head judge at the end of the end (or, if the rule of the "free defenders" zone is applied, which assumes a static position of some stones during the first 2 throws of each team - until the end of the end).
To improve the performance of your team, before the measurement, you can slowly move the opponent's stones away from the center, and, on the contrary, move your own stones closer. This should not be done. First, when measuring the position of the stones, only the match referees have the right to be in the "house". Players should be located outside the court. Secondly, in the event that one of the players nevertheless moves the opponent's bat, its position will be counted as closer to the center compared to the initial one. And if the curler tries to move the stones of his team closer to the center, their position is fixed as the worst in relation to the opponent's bats. If the judge moves the stone, the position of the stones of both teams, which are closest to the center, will be counted as the same.
The underside of the curling stones is flat and smooth. No, the lower part of the stone does not have full contact with the ice. The surface of the playing field is only touched by an annular surface, the width of which is 3 cm. This shape of the projectile reduces grip on the ice, allowing the stone to slide more easily on the court.
If the stone breaks during the game, a new one will be installed on the site in the same place where the stone was broken. Yes, the new bit will indeed be installed, but exactly where the largest piece of the broken stone stopped. Also, the stone can be replaced if, during the sliding process, it stops abruptly or changes its trajectory (which indicates defects on the sliding surface of the projectile).
If the damaged stone cannot be replaced, the match will be stopped. No, in this case the match can be played with 7 stones at one of the teams (1 of the stones will be thrown twice in the end), if the skips and the head judge have no objections.
Curlers rub the ice with special brushes so that the stone glides better along the chosen trajectory. Yes, such actions are called sweeping or sweeping (English sweeping, from sweep - "sweeping", "revenge"). Moreover, you can sweep the stones of the enemy, making them go out of the playing area. The right to manipulate this kind of curler (always only one) gets only when the opponent's stone crosses the teeline - the line passing through the center of the "house".
Collisions of launched stones with bats sent earlier by players of the same team are prohibited by the rules. This restriction applies only from the first to the fourth stone (i.e., until both teams make 2 throws), after which the prohibition expires.
In curling matches, each team is given 75 minutes to play all rallies in 10 ends. Only if registration of "net" playing time is used. In this case, the countdown begins at the moment when the rivals finish the rally, and ends simultaneously with the complete stop of all stones on the court. If a controversial situation arises that requires the intervention of a referee, the countdown is suspended and resumes only after the signal of the head referee. In this case, the time limit for the execution of each draw is not set. However, to control the duration of the teams' playing actions, a different principle can be applied - the introduction of a time limit for each separate rally (if, for technical reasons, the principle of "clean time" cannot be implemented, or the referee believes that the player or team skips are dragging out time). In this case, the player is given 30 seconds to make a throw, a skip or vice-skip to define the task and make a decision - 2 minutes.
If any of the players touches the moving stone and changes its trajectory, this will be considered a violation of the rules and will lead to the cancellation of the rally. Yes, however, it should be noted that the fact of touching the stone by one of the players must be confirmed, and for this it is necessary to obtain confirmation of the skips of both teams and the chief referee (who must record the fact according to the results of visual monitoring of the course of the game). If any of the above factors is missing, the touch is considered invalid, the game continues. If the touch is confirmed, the skips can either decide to cancel the rally or count the completed rally (in this case, they have the right to place the shifted stone in the place where it would have stopped if the player who made the touch had not acted on it).
The sweeping motion of the brush is along the sliding line of the stone. The brush (broom) should slide from side to side, and the movements are made at an angle to the trajectory of the stone. If the movements are unidirectional, they are carried out along the sliding line, or the brush does not touch the surface of the site at all, a violation of the rules will be recorded.
If at the end of the 10th end the score is equal, an additional period is assigned. This is really so - an extra end is appointed, and the winning team will be declared the winner in this match (there can be several extra-ends - in the event that the first extra period ended in a draw). Tie-breaks are provided for teams that have won the same number of victories in round robin tournaments, while Olympic awards are played out according to the playoff system.
If 2 players of the same team are eliminated from the game, the match ends, and the team is considered defeated. Yes, if replacement of eliminated players is impossible. If substitution is possible, the match will continue, even if only 3 players remain on the field. In this case, the athletes performing under the first and second numbers will perform 3 throws each.
The number of players on the court cannot be increased. There should be no more than 4 players on the field, but if at the beginning only three players of the team entered the game - the fourth can join them before the start of any end of the given match.
During the throw, the player can use any of the blocks fixed at the beginning of the playing court. If the curler releases a stone with his right hand, he must rest one foot on the block located to the left of the center line of the court, if he uses his left hand, he must push off from the block located on the right. In the event that the athlete, for any reason, pushes off the opposite block, the rally of the stone will be canceled.